The new particle will not solve dark matter

There is no shortage of debate about the nature of dark matter, a mysterious substance that many believe makes up a large percentage of the total mass of the universe, despite not directly observing it. Some now believe that the Landauer principle, which dictates the physical nature of information, raises a startling possibility: that dark matter might be information itself, writes Melvyn Fobson.

One of the great curiosities of modern physics is the nature of the mysterious substance known as “dark matter”. It’s widely accepted that the composition of the universe is about 5% ordinary (baryonic) matter made up of baryons – an umbrella name for subatomic particles like protons, neutrons and electrons, 27% dark matter, and 68% of the universe is made of something tantalizing. More called “dark energy”. Unlike ordinary matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This means that it does not absorb, reflect or emit light, which makes it extremely difficult to detect.

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Dark matter was first proposed in the 1920s to explain observed anomalies in stellar velocities, and later in the 1930s, when Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss astronomer noted a discrepancy between the mass of visible matter and the calculated mass of a galaxy cluster in addition to the discrepancy. Among the movement of a group of galaxies was too fast to be caught by the gravity of visible matter alone. Having this gravitational anomaly, Zwicky called dunkle materie – “dark matter”. However, the strongest scientific argument for the existence of dark matter came in the 1970s with the work of American astronomer Vera Rubin, who showed a consistent effect of spiral galaxies that rotate too quickly for the amount of visible matter present. Rubin and Zwicky both noticed something adding to the gravitational force acting on these galaxies.

The main observational evidence came in the 1970s from research on the rotation curves of galaxies. Studying the rotation curves of galaxies allows the kinematics of galaxies to be studied, and provides a method for estimating their masses. The orbital velocity of a rotating disk of gas and stars is expected to obey Kepler’s second law, so rotational velocities should decrease with distance from the center. Experimental observations indicate that the rotation curves of galaxies remain flat as the distance from the center increases. Since there is more gravity than expected if only the observed light/baryonic matter of the galaxy is present, the flattened rotational velocity curves are a strong indication that something else, called dark matter, is present.

Vopson Graph 2

The expected and observed galactic rotation curve for a spiral galaxy. Dark matter is essential to explain the “flat” rotational velocity curve even for stars at very great distances from the galactic center. attributed to him:

Although the existence of dark matter is generally accepted, a large group of scientists is working on alternative explanations that don’t require dark matter to exist at all. To this end, there are many theoretical approaches, which usually involve modifications of existing theories such as modified Newtonian dynamics, modified general relativity, deterministic gravity and vector-scalar gravity, to name a few.


Some have suggested that “information” is the fifth state of matter along solids, liquids, gases, and plasmas and perhaps the dominant form of matter in the universe.


Most physicists today attempt to determine the nature of dark matter through a variety of means, but the consensus is that dark matter is primarily composed of a yet-to-be-discovered subatomic particle. Unfortunately, all efforts to isolate or detect dark matter have so far failed.

Could an explanation for the mystery of “dark matter” come from an entirely new approach, based on information physics?

The field of research in information physics has its origins in the principle that information is physical, information is recorded by physical systems, and all physical systems can record information. The interaction between physics and information has been the subject of scientific debate since the late 1920s. Leo Szilard analyzed the relationship of information to physical processes, showing that information about a system determines its possible paths of development, and offering an elegant solution to Maxwell’s famous Satanic paradox. The informational content of the universe has been addressed in numerous studies by the likes of Stephen Hawking, Jacob David Bekenstein and Seth Lloyd since the late 1970s and most recently in a 2021 study.


The strongest scientific argument for the existence of dark matter came in the 1970s with the work of American astronomer Vera Rubin, who demonstrated a consistent effect for spiral galaxies that rotate too quickly for the amount of visible matter present.


With the advent of digital computers and digital technologies and digital data storage, the subject of information physics entered a new era, beginning with the pioneering work on information physics of Brillouin in 1953 and Landauer in 1961. Structured, but physical. After its empirical confirmation, Landauer’s principle, which dictates the physical nature of information, has become widely accepted as valid by the scientific community today.

In 2019, an extension of Landauer’s principle was proposed, called the principle of equivalence of mass-energy information (MEI). The MEI equivalence principle states that if information is equivalent to energy, according to Landauer, and if energy is equivalent to mass, according to Einstein’s special relativity, then the triad of mass, energy, and information must all be equal as well. According to the MEI equivalence principle, some information should have a small mass when the information is stored in equilibrium. So information bits have the properties of a scalar boson particle without charge, spin, or any other properties except mass/energy. This particle of information would display its existence only through gravitational interactions, but would be impossible to detect because it would not interact with electromagnetic radiation. These are, in fact, elusive “dark matter” properties whose existence is only inferred by gravitational interactions, but is never observed or detected.

This has led some to propose the radical idea that information may be the missing dark matter in the universe, and also to postulate that “information” is the fifth element.The tenth The state of matter along solids, liquids, gases, plasmas and possibly the dominant form of matter in the universe.

Vopson Graph 1

An artistic representation of a digital diagram of the universe. Free license image from

20 07 30 ekeberg.ata

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Assuming a constant mean temperature T = 2.73K for the universe (the cosmic microwave background temperature) and without any considerations about where in spacetime this block of information is located, a rough estimate would be that the total number is ~52 1093 The bits of information in the observable universe would be enough to explain the entire missing dark matter. This raises a startling possibility: that dark matter may be information itself.

Although the proposed theory has speculative aspects, it has the advantage of being verifiable in a laboratory setting. In fact, a new experiment was already proposed in March 2022 and the world’s first Information Physics Institute (IPI) was recently set up to support these studies and experimental efforts at the University of Portsmouth, through fundraising and collaborative research. We hope that IPI and the field of information physics research will soon yield important results that will advance our understanding of the universe and the laws that govern it.


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